- An increase in curvature of cornea
- Cause: Thinning and protrusion of cornea
- Seen in young adults.
- Frequent change of glasses
- Painless progressive loss of vision
- Uniocular diplopia (due to astigmatism).
Signs (Mnemonic: FAMOUS):
- F: Fleischer ring (Fe deposition in epithelium in the base of cornea)
- A: Astigmatism (irregular)
- M: Munson sign: Bulging of lower eyelid
- O: Oil droplet reflex
- U (V): Vogt’s sign (thin cornea)
- S: Scarring of cornea.
Rizzuti sign: Light shone from temporal side results in an arrowhead like appearance of light on the nasal side.
Scissoring reflex on retinoscopy:
Due to irregular astigmatism.
Oil in Ophthalmology:
- Oil droplet reflex: Keratoconus
- Oil globule reflex: Anterior lenticonus
- Oil droplet cataract: Galactosemia.
- Descemet membrane rupture
- Aqueous goes into the layers of cornea, leading to opacification
- ONLY condition in keratoconus where pain occurs
- Rx: Full thickness (penetrating) keratoplasty.
Investigations of keratoconus:
- Orbscan (IOC)
- Keratometry (Corneal curvature)
- Pachymetry (Corneal thickness).
Treatment of keratoconus:
- Contact lens is the first treatment for keratoconus patients
- Rigid gas permeable (RGP): Contact lens of choice
- For progressive keratoconus in spite of wearing contact lens, C3R (Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking with Riboflavin) is done.
Images used in this webpage to describe the topic(s) properly to the audience might be copyrighted under other person(s) or publishing house(s) or respective company. We have solely used them for non-commercial educational purpose only; not intended to any unfair means or copyright violation. Still if you want any image(s) to be removed from this webpage, please leave a message to firstname.lastname@example.org with proper evidence of authorization (link to original work and allegedly infringing url) and we will not hesitate to process your request as early as possible and delete the respective image(s). Thank you for cooperating with us.