Ligaments of Knee joint

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Introduction:

  • Knee joint is the MC site of osteoarthritis
  • Knee joint is the MC site of septic arthritis in India
  • Knee joint is the LC joint to undergo dislocation.

Ligaments:

  • 2 menisci: medial & lateral
  • 2 collateral ligaments: medial & lateral
  • 2 cruciate ligaments: anterior & posterior.

Menisci:

  • Medial meniscus is attached to medial collateral ligament (MCL), so it can’t escape injury. So, medial meniscus tear is more common.
  • Lateral meniscus is not attached to lateral collateral ligament (LCL), so it can escape injury. So, lateral meniscus tear is less common.
  • Clinical test of choice to check for meniscal tear: McMurray’s test.

Collateral ligaments:

  • Acts asĀ coronal plane stabilizers of knee joint
  • For the same reason stated above, MCL tear is more common.

Cruciate ligaments:

  • Acts as sagittal plane stabilizers of knee joint

ACL

PCL
Attached to the medial surface of lateral condyle

Attached to the lateral surface of medial condyle

Prevents anterior displacement of tibia over femur

Prevents posterior displacement of tibia over femur

Gets taut in extension

Gets taut in flexion

Mechanism of injury: Hyperextension

Mechanism of injury: Hyperflexion

Test of choice for ACL tear: LACHMAN’s test

Test of choice for PCL tear: Posterior drawer test

MC ligament treated surgically

LC ligament treated surgically

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