- MC cause of glomerulonephritis overall: IgA nephropathy
- MC cause of glomerulonephritis in children: Minimal change disease
- MC cause of acute nephritic syndrome in children: PSGN
- MC cause of nephrotic syndrome in adult: FSGS.
- Subepithelial deposits (beneath the epithelium)
- Characterized by crescents (proliferation of parietal epithelial cells)
- “Spike and dome” pattern:
- Characteristic of membranous glomerulonephritis
- “Tram track” appearance:
- Characteristic of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN)
- Mesangial sclerosis:
- Seen in IgA nephropathy
- Collapsing glomerulopathy (a variant of FSGS):
- Characteristic of HIV; characterized by segmental collapse of the glomerular tuft and hyperplasia of overlying visceral epithelial cells
- “Basket weave” appearance:
- Characteristic of Alport syndrome (Electron microscopy)
- “Foam cells” in glomeruli:
- Characteristic of Alport syndrome (Light microscopy)
- Nodular glomerulosclerosis (Kimmelstiel Wilson lesion):
- Characteristic of Diabetic nephropathy
- “Wire loop lesions”:
- Characteristic of SLE nephritis.
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